With the technological development of smartphones, which, in fact, have become portable computers and can fully perform the functions of powerful PCs, communication has also begun to develop. Just a few years ago, humanity was proud of the speed of data transfer in 3G format, as a few years later the 4G standard appeared, and now – 5G.
But with the improvement of the quality of communication, the requirements for mobile operators are also becoming prohibitive. First, the 5G standard requires appropriate equipment, which is very expensive, and not many companies produce it. And some, such as HUAWEI, are generally under sanctions. Of course, this does not negate the fact that the Chinese, along with Ericsson and Nokia, are leaders in the production of the necessary equipment for transmitting data at the required streaming speed.
If we talk about the military, they have long planned the launch of satellites into orbit that would provide the 5G standard in space and on Earth. In particular, according to the Pentagon, it was planned to launch the first apparatus into low Earth orbit in early March 2021. This was due to a massive upgrade program across the organization’s entire IT structure to improve efficiency in data transfer. This is the responsibility of the aspects that are responsible for the inputs and outputs of streaming information. They are called “MIMO arrays”. Also, 5G has huge potential for using artificial intelligence in military, industrial and civilian infrastructure. It is expected that this will reduce the transfer time from the point of origin of the request to the data source and back in record time. This is also achieved by the fact that AI is able to prioritize a direction for a fraction of a second, reducing traffic in one direction and increasing it in another. This controlled unevenness increases the efficiency of the global network much more effectively than uniform distribution, which gives the effect of an information jam and slows down traffic. If we compare it with traffic on the road, we can imagine: a stream of cars is moving, which is stuck in one direction, but another route opens, redirecting some cars there, but without losing time.
Technical Features of 5G
Increases overall peak downlink speed to 20Gbps, i.e., from base station to mobile phone and other device; up to 10 Gbit / s – in the opposite direction.
The practical speed of the subscriber is up to 100 Mbps;
Improving the spectral efficiency in 5G networks from 2 to 5 times. Downlink is 30 bps/Hz, uplink is 15 to 20 bps/Hz.
Energy efficiency is increased by 2 orders of magnitude, which will allow Internet of Things devices to work without mandatory recharging for up to 10 years;
Dramatically reduces air interface latency to 0.5 ms for URLLC Ultra Reliable Machine-to-Machine communications services and to 4 ms for eMBB Ultra-Mobile Broadband services.